Before we start analyzing an ES of a technogenic nature, we need to define some terms.
Emergency situations are calledThe situation that develops in certain places or in certain areas under the influence of accidents, disasters, natural phenomena or natural disasters.
A catastrophe is a phenomenon (natural or man-made) that caused the death of people.
The accident is considered a phenomenon, during which the destruction of buildings, communications or structures occurred, but there were no human victims.
An emergency situation is a situation in which at least one of the following characteristics is inherent:
- there were violations of normal or safe life;
- there was a threat to life, to people's health;
- threat or occurrence of large material losses, losses;
- the possibility of causing damage to the environment, the environment.
Classification of emergency situations of technogenic character takes into account the place of occurrence of the catastrophe, the breadth of its distribution.
To characterize the scale of emergencies are taken into account
- number of dead and wounded;
- the power of social turmoil;
- the possibility of instantaneous, as well as remote economic, physical, psychological consequences;
- the amount of material damage.
Emergencies of a technogenic nature are a process, as a result of which destruction occurs, human victims appear, provoked by:
- accidents at chemical industry facilities. They are accompanied by emissions or leakage of toxic substances, from which soil, food, water, animals, people, the entire environment can be affected. (Example: a fire at a railway station in the city of Nikolsk).
- Damage, malfunctioning at enterprises withincreased radiation hazard, which caused death of people. As a result of such damage, radiation contamination of the environment occurs, and exposure of personnel serving the facility. Most often, the population is exposed to radiation. (Example: Chernobyl).
- The collapse of (sudden) buildings, communications,constructions. These emergencies are technogenic in the process of violation of construction technology, in case of non-compliance with the rules for the operation of buildings, as a result of natural forces. (Example: Aquapark in Moscow)
- Accidents on systems designed to ensure the livelihoods of settlements: waterways, power supply systems, gas supply. (Example: disconnection of electricity in the Moscow metro on May 25, 05).
- Transport accidents that entaileddestruction of buildings, death of people: accidents, aircraft accidents, accidents on railways, rivers, seas, pipelines. (Example: a plane crash in Jakarta, Indonesia, 48 people died during a demonstration flight).
- Fires, explosions caused by the results of human activity. (Example: fire 02.04.2012, MIBC "Moscow City", tower "East").
- Hydrodynamic catastrophes: breakthroughs of dams, dams, etc. (Example: Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP).
On the scale of its spread, technogenic emergency situations take into account the number of deaths. Depending on this, they are divided into:
- Object or local. The consequences of such accidents do not go beyond the boundaries of the enterprise and can be eliminated without outside interference.
- Local. Affect the territory of a separate settlement, without going beyond its limits.
- Territorial. These emergencies of anthropogenic nature go beyond the limits of one education (republics, krais, autonomous okrugs, etc.)
- Regional. Several regions or regions, republics, autonomous regions of the Russian Federation are struck.
- Federal. They cover more than 4 territorial entities.
- Transboundary. Such emergencies of technogenic nature go beyond the state.
Most often, man-made disasters develop according to the general pattern:
- First, defects, inaccuracies and deviations in the operation of equipment and the production process accumulate. At this stage of the accident are eliminated.
- The occurrence of an event triggering an accident. Usually time for reaction at this moment is not enough.
- The emergence of an accident that develops into a disaster or disaster.