Fascioliasis

Fascioliasis

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Fascioliasis- helminthiasis (trematodoz), occurring with symptoms of cholangitis, cholecystitis and hepatocholangitis. Etiology. Pathogens - flatworm (trematode) Fasciola hepatica (hepatic fluke, hepatic fluke), less often Fasciola gigantica (giant fluke, giant flute)

  • Adult individuals of Fasciola hepatica are 20–30 mm long and 8–12 mm wide, the front part of the body is covered with spines and extended into the proboscis with the head and abdominal suckers located on it. Eggs 0.13–0.145 × 0.07–0.09 mm, yellowish-brown, oval, with a clearly visible lid and a sheath thickened at the poles. Adults of Fasciola gigantica 33–76 mm long and 5–12 mm wide. The eggs are 0.15–0.19 × 0.075–0.09 mm, brown, oval, with a clearly visible lid and a shell thickened at the poles. Epidemiology. Sporadic cases of invasion of Fasciola hepatica are widespread. The greatest incidence noted in Asia, Africa, Latin America, China. Fasciola gigantica invasions in humans have been reported in Vietnam, Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. The final owners and the reservoir of the pathogen are man, cattle and small cattle (usually sheep), which produce eggs with feces.After the eggs hit the freshwater reservoir or into the wet floodplain soil in 4–8 weeks, the ciliated miracidian larvae emerge from them. Intermediate hosts are freshwater mollusks, in them there is a complex asexual reproduction with the formation of sporocysts, from which redia emerge, giving rise to the generation of the caudate cercarium larvae.
  • Floating in water, subsequently attach to aquatic vegetation (additional hosts) and turn into adolescaria (invasive forms). The whole cycle of asexual development takes 4-6 weeks. On the plants and in the moist soil, adolescarias persist up to 2 years (they quickly die when dried). The final owners become infected by eating aquatic vegetation or drinking water from stagnant bodies of water. The larvae penetrate the abdominal cavity through the intestinal wall, then through the fibrous capsule into the liver and biliary tract. The second migration route is hematogenous, via the portal vein system. After 3-4 months the larvae reach sexual maturity. Adult worms live 3-5 years.

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