The Kaganate is a kind of statedevice. At the head of such education is the kagan, or, according to one of the interpretations of this title, "khan khans". The term itself is mentioned for the first time in connection with the ancient Mongolian tribe of the Xianbi nomads.
In the III century BC from the ancientUnion called "Dungu", formed around 1100 BC, one of the tribes was singled out. The new association for three centuries was called in different ways, and in 330 the Zhuzhan Kaganate arose. This state, formed by the Xianbi tribe, lasted until 555. In 402 the ruler of the tribes Zhuzhani first of all began to call himself kagan, thus creating a new title of supreme ruler. According to one of the historical versions, the name of the subordinate tribe is a contemptuous nickname given to them by the Chinese. Zsuzsany - slowly creeping, or reptiles. Not surprisingly, this people wanted to be independent. In this case, the Kaganate is the union of the Zhuzhan tribes, which also represented a confederation.
And at the beginning of the VI century from this education, in itsthe tribe separated, wishing to be independent. They formed the Avarian Khaganate, which existed from 562 to 823. The territories of modern Slovakia and Croatia, Romania and Hungary, Serbia and Ukraine accounted for the area of this state founded by Khagan Boyan I. Back in 555 the Avars were known as the nomadic people driven by the Turks, forced to leave the steppes of western Kazakhstan and move to the remote bank of the Volga. And already in 565-566, having skirted the Carpathians from the north, they captivate the king of the Franks Sigibert I, defeating his army. Contemporaries were so shocked by this fact that they attributed the gift of magic to the Avars. During its peak, the Avarian Khaganat stretched from the Black Sea to the Adriatic and from the Alps to the Elbe. The Avars achieved such power thanks to the wise and rigid rule of the talented leader Boyan I, who ruled the country from the time of its formation in 562 until his death in 602. The sly and cynical leader, without hesitation, changed allies, destroyed entire tribes to achieve his goal, and as a result, even forced the Byzantine emperor Tiberius II to pay tribute to him. The Kaganate is a tough dictatorship, and the kagan is a sovereign in the medieval nomad hierarchy, a person who, without any restrictions, has absolutely all power.
When studying the history of ancient times, alwaysthere are several views on the same issue. Thus, Avars are referred to different ethnic groups: Mongolian, Iranian, Turkic. Representatives of the archaeological school of Hungary, in whose territory the Avarian Kaganate was located, refer most of the Avars to the Caucasoids and only a small stratum to the Mongoloids. But this smaller part of the population played a dominant role, was the elite of the Avar state. It can be assumed that the representatives of the ruling elite did not assimilate with the conquered peoples. The first defeated brazen Avars were given at Constantinople in 626 AD. Immediately from the Khaganate separate tribes began to separate - the first to run Kutrigurs, modern Bulgarians. In 631, Khan Alzek, ruler of the future Great Bulgaria, withdraws his army from the Khaganate after an unsuccessful attempt to seize power. Then the Avars only defend and retreat. From Dalmatia, Croats oust them in 640. The franco-Avar war, which lasted a very long time, brought the Khaganate. Gradually, all the enslaved peoples rebelled. And the last region of Pannonia, dedicated to the Avars, headed by the already baptized Khagan, was captured by the Hungarians in 899. Avars completely ceased to exist. The once powerful state, which lived about 3.5 centuries, disappeared without a trace.
The question arises about what a kaganate is likeis arranged, why disappears, as a rule, without a trace. It is interesting that the kagan, a man who subsequently possessed absolute power, was elected by the people's assembly. In the Khazar and Aavrian kaganates, the ruler had a governor, Tudun, who was entrusted with supervisory, organizational and diplomatic functions, and yugur, who was probably the supreme priest. Tribute was collected by representatives of the nobility - the Tarkhans. And behind them, according to the hierarchy, there were leaders of tribes who played an important role in the structure of the country. They also led their people out of the Kaganate. Maybe that's why this state disappeared from the face of the Earth, which was multi-ethnic.
The Turgesh Kaganate did not last long- from the beginning to the middle of the VIII century. At the very beginning of the century, the leader of the Türgershes, Uslik, overthrew the Chinese governor and demanded to recognize himself as a kagan of the Celestial Empire. He made his capital city Suyab, which was his bid. The entire territory of the new Kaganate included 20 territorial units, each of which had 7,000 soldiers. They were located in the squares of Chinese provinces and stretched from Beshbalyk to Tashkent. In 705, in view of the threat of the Arab occupation of the country, the Kaganate concluded an alliance with China and broke up the Arab forces. The following rulers - Soga, Zhen, the Great Suluk, in which the Kaganate reached its peak, waged successful wars with both the Arabs and China. But after Suluk's assassination, the authorities began to slip out of the hands of his successors, who were Kutsha and Baga-Tarkhan, Bilge and Tengri-Ilmysh, the last kagan, with the death of which the Turgesh Khaganate ceased to exist. Remains coins of this state with Sogdian inscriptions, minted with these rulers.
A little longer existed East-Turkickaganat. The capital was the city of Orda-Balyk. The history of this state of nomads began in 603 after the dissolution of the Türkic Kaganate to the Western and Eastern parts. For three decades, the newly formed Eastern Khaganate, which had a common border with China, waged quite successful wars with it, but in 630 the country was again captured by the Turkic Empire. After 50 years, the Kok-Turks revolted, as a result of which the Eastern Khaganate was rebuilt under a new name - Kok-Türk. And again his troops were smashing the army of neighboring China - in 686 under Xinzhou, in 694 - near Lingzhou. The second kagan Kapagan Mochur, who ruled from 693 to 716, successfully invaded China in 698 and defeated the imperial troops. The following 6 rulers did not achieve such successes. And at the last, Kulun-beke, the troops of the Kaganate in 745 were defeated by the Uighur troops of Khan Moyut-Chur. The Kok-Türkic Kaganate, an area of 4 million square kilometers, formed in 682, ceased to exist.
The Karluk Kaganate, which arose 11 years afterthe collapse of the Kok-Türkic, is also a Turkic state, and it existed from 756 to 940. The territory occupied by it included the spaces between the lakes Issyk-Kul and Balkhash, from the middle reaches of the Syr-Darya to the Djungar Alatau. That is, it was within modern Kazakhstan. The roots of the Karluk kaganate grew from the western part of the Turkic state, which had broken up (in 603). Being a certain period under the strong influence of China, at the beginning of the VIII century the Karluks (inhabitants of these regions) begin a gradual migration towards the west. They have been known about them since the 5th century. This is also a multi-tribal community - they were joined in the VII century by such tribes as bulak, chigil and tashlyk. On their way, the growing detachments of the future new Kaganate won a series of major victories. So, they helped the Arabs in 751 to win in Talas, or Atlakh (Talas Valley, Attle City), the battle against China (the Tang Dynasty). They fought with the East Turkic Khaganate. But the Karluk state, which knew the ups, did not last long. She was also absorbed in another Turkic formation - Eastern Turkestan, who seized the capital of the Karluk Khaganate Balasgun in 940. However, part of the population managed to escape the Ili River, the longest in the Semirechie, where they created a new state called the Karluk Khanate. The capital was the city of Kaylyk.
When asked what the Kaganate is, you cananswer that this is a purely Asian form of government. Nowhere in Europe or America have there been such formations. In Asia, there were quite a lot of them - there was even a Russian Khaganate on the Lower Don. It also ended its existence in the middle of the IX century. As history shows, a fairly unfortunate form of government - all the khaganates were routed, and the population of many disappeared without a trace or dissolved among other tribes, for example Khazars and Avars. But the importance of these Turkic states is very difficult to overestimate.Thanks to military expansion, the culture of the Eastenriched by the achievements of ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean. Many tribes left China and made their way to Western Europe, assimilating along the way with the peoples living on these vast expanses.