Prolactin (hormone): what is it The norm of prolactin for women

Prolactin (hormone): what is it? The norm of prolactin for women

The most important biological componentshuman body, which control not only our feelings and behavior, but virtually all the physiological processes, are hormones. Prolactin in women is the main hormone responsible for the childbearing function that regulates ovulation and the menstrual cycle. It is about him today's article.

So, prolactin (hormone): what is it? What is his norm? What is the response of the hormone prolactin in the human body? Let's look at these questions.

Prolactin is produced in the brain, andnamely in the anterior pituitary gland. It is also called the "stress hormone", as the increase in its level is observed under various physical and emotional strains.

prolactin hormone what it is

Functions of the hormone in the body

Scientists are still studying prolactin (a hormone). What it is is not fully known today. In the course of numerous studies, the following functions of this biologically active substance in the female body were established:

  • This hormone directly affectsthe growth of mammary glands in girls during puberty and prepares them for lactation. In addition, during the period of breastfeeding, prolactin stimulates and regulates the production of milk.
  • One of the most important functions of the hormone in question is the maintenance of the existence of a yellow body in the ovary. Due to this, the high content of progesterone necessary for bearing a child is maintained.
  • Under the influence of prolactin formed the so-called maternal instinct and the corresponding behavioral reactions.
  • Regulates the activity of the adrenal glands (prolactin stimulates the production of androgens).

For a male body, this hormone is also very important, because:

  • Participates in the regulation of spermatogenesis.
  • Hormones of FSH, LH, prolactin are closely related, which, inin turn, activates the activity of other biologically active substances that regulate sexual function. In particular, prolactin is responsible for the formation of testosterone.
  • Stimulates the secretion of the prostate gland.

It follows that prolactin has a hugeinfluence on the condition of the reproductive system, both women and men. In addition, the hormone is a natural "contraceptive" - ​​prevents conception during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

the hormone prolactin is normal for women

Hormone Prolactin: the norm for women

The level of this hormone varies depending on the day of the menstrual cycle. The following values ​​are considered normal values:

  • in the follicular phase - from 4.5 to 33 ng / ml;
  • in the ovulatory phase - from 6.3 to 49 ng / ml;
  • in the luteal phase - from 4.9 to 40 ng / ml.

Concentration of prolactin in the blood during pregnancy

During the gestation of the baby, serious changes occur in the woman's body, and the prolactin hormone also changes. The norm for women during this period is:

  • in the first trimester - from 3.2 to 43 ng / ml;
  • in the second trimester - from 13 to 166 ng / ml;
  • in the third trimester - from 13 to 318 ng / ml.

The increase in the level of the hormone prolactin beginsat the 8th week of pregnancy. Its maximum value is observed at 20-25 weeks. Before birth, the content of prolactin decreases. The next increase in the hormone occurs during breastfeeding.

Prolactin level in the male body

As already mentioned above, one of the main roles in the body of the male members is the hormone prolactin. The norm for men is slightly lower than for women, and is in the range of 2.5-17 ng / ml.

hormone prolactin norm

How to determine the content of prolactin in the body?

A blood test will help determine the contentin the body of a substance such as the hormone prolactin. When to take tests? Women are advised to donate blood during the first 3 days of the menstrual cycle (unless there are any specific recommendations). The most favorable period for determining the hormone prolactin - this morning, after awakening should take 2-3 hours. Analyzes are usually given up on an empty stomach.

How to prepare for laboratory tests?

The day before you need to donate bloodhormone prolactin, should refrain from sexual contact, refuse to visit saunas, baths, exclude the use of alcohol, even in minimal doses. Any disturbances and experiences contribute to an increase in the content of the substance in the blood, so if possible, exclude stressful situations on the eve of the analysis. Before the investigation, be extremely careful and do not allow injury to the chest. Immediately before the analysis, lie down for 30 minutes and try to relax as much as possible. For an hour before taking blood refrain from smoking. To comply with the above recommendations is very important. Otherwise, the results of the blood test will be unreliable, which will entail the surrender of other analyzes.

hormones of prolactin in women

In what cases should I take a blood test to determine the amount of the prolactin hormone?

Experts recommend conducting a blood test for prolactin, if a woman has the following pathologies:

  • infertility;
  • there are no menstruation for 6 months or more;
  • Milk is excreted from the mammary glands, while the woman is not pregnant and does not breast feed the baby;
  • frequent headaches;
  • vision impaired for an unknown reason.

Men should be tested for prolactin if:

  • enlarged mammary glands;
  • there is erectile dysfunction (inability to maintain an erection during the entire sexual intercourse);
  • worried about headaches;
  • there is a visual impairment.

Hyperprolactinemia, or elevated prolactin (hormone): what is it?

This is a pathological condition characterized by various diseases, namely:

  • Prolactinoma. It is a tumor of the pituitary gland, which produces prolactin in excess. As a rule, in such a state, the concentration level of a given hormone in the blood exceeds 200 ng / ml.
  • Anorexia. This condition is a mental pathology, in which a person refuses to eat because of fear of weight gain.
  • Hypothyroidism. A condition characterized by a decrease in the production of thyroid hormones.
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome. This pathology of the female sexual sphere, in which the menstrual cycle is broken, there is an increased growth of hair throughout the body.

In addition, the level of the hormone can be increasedwith severe renal pathology, liver cirrhosis, neoplasm in the hypothalamus, taking certain medications that have a corresponding side effect (estrogens, hormonal contraceptives, tricyclic antidepressants, amphetamines, and others).

Hyperprolactinaemia can also have a physiological character. The level of prolactin rises when:

  • pregnancy;
  • breastfeeding;
  • intensive physical exertion;
  • high protein content in the diet;
  • emotional overstrain.

a hormone prolaktin when to hand over

Symptoms of increased prolactin concentration in the blood

With an excess of the hormone prolactin in the body, there are serious functional disorders (both in men and women):

  • For the early stages of the disease is characterized by a decrease in libido (sexual desire), which can provoke reproductive dysfunction.
  • In women, the menstrual cycle is interrupted andanorgasmia develops. During the examination, there is no ovulation. With a high level of the hormone prolactin, the production of FSH and LH decreases, which, in turn, leads to infertility.
  • In men, impaired sexual function, sexual intercoursenot accompanied by ejaculation. Analysis of the spermogram shows a small number of spermatozoa, their mobility is reduced, various defects in the structure are observed.

In addition, a high content of hormoneprolactin in the blood can cause loss of vision, sleep and memory disorders, depression, osteoporosis, mastopathy, provoke such a dangerous condition as oncology of the mammary glands or other important female organs.

for which the hormone prolactin

How to reduce the concentration of the hormone prolactin in the blood?

If a specialist diagnoses an increasedthe content of prolactin in the body, treatment should begin immediately. Therapeutic measures are aimed at combating the disease, which caused the development of hyperprolactinaemia. Thus, prolactinoma presupposes drug treatment with the use of a drug such as Bromocriptine and other drugs, radiotherapy of a pituitary tumor, or its removal by surgery. When hypothyroidism is necessary treatment of thyroid pathology, and so on.

Why does the amount of prolactin in the blood decrease?

Reduced concentration of this hormone inbody is considered a variant of the norm for children, men and non-pregnant women. Reducing the amount of prolactin in the blood, as a rule, does not require special treatment. However, to exclude the pituitary diseases, to undergo a medical examination is still worth it.

Reduced levels of prolactin in the blood may indicate:

  • benign and malignant tumors of the pituitary gland;
  • tuberculosis of the pituitary gland;
  • head trauma with impaired pituitary function.

Also, the level of the hormone under consideration decreases as a result of radiotherapy of the pituitary tumor, prolonged use of certain medications (Dopamine, Levodol, etc.).

blood for the hormone prolactin


Today you learned more about such an important substance as prolactin (hormone): what it is, what functions it performs in the human body, on which the rise or fall of its level in the blood depends.

To prevent possible problems,it is necessary to monitor your health very closely, to react in a timely manner to the slightest deviations from the normal state. Women's health, as well as men, is of great importance. It is on him that the birth of children, a normal relationship with a partner and a happy family life.

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