Identify the subject of economic science in the course of itsformation and development was not immediately possible. It is impossible to describe this concept in a few words. No short definition will reveal the essence of the phenomena of economics that are being comprehended.
Subject of economic scienceis determined by different researchersdifferently. You can specify such definitions as "activities related to exchange and money transactions," "everyday business life, during which the means of subsistence are derived and used", "people's behavior in the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of material goods" and etc.
The complexity of determining the subject of this scienceis explained by the fact that economic relations are extremely complex and intertwined among themselves a huge number of times, with each time pouring out into qualitatively new types of relations. They include millions of people, enterprises, industries, goods, services and prices for them.
The subject of economic science in the understanding of the Westernresearchers is reduced to the study of phenomena and the description of economic facts: money, markets, credit relations, unemployment, inflation, demand, supply, profit, etc. In this context, the links between these phenomena, their mutual influence and interdependence are studied.
At present, more and more attention is attracted tothe study of universal values that flow from the process of the so-called natural self-regulation of life, the laws of human interaction with nature and the material environment. This leads to the fact that the subject of economic science begins to be treated with some changes.
As a person for his life has not yet founda source of inexhaustible resources that can be used to ensure its own vital activity, then it depends heavily on what nature provides it. The limited nature of natural resources poses to society the task of selecting directions, as well as ways to use the resources that are available for a certain period. The methods for solving these problems form the subject of economic science.
Methodology of economic scienceIs the science of its methods. At the present stage, economic science has a large set of methods used to understand economic realities. These methods were formed from the time of antiquity, beginning with Aristotle and Heraclitus, which laid the basis for a dialectical view of the world. This principle is still widely used by economic science in its research.
In addition, it uses methods such asthe study of the processes of the economy in the interrelation of phenomena and their development, as synthesis and analysis, deduction and induction, causes and effects, delimitation of the essence and the phenomena themselves, the movement of thought from the abstract to the concrete, and many others.
At the same time, economic science has andspecific methods of research, which are determined by specific goals for the objects of scientific development. The main principle of economic science is the study of facts, rather than given a priori dogma. To do this, it uses methods of specific study, the classification of representative and reliable facts, their synthesis and analysis, the purification of facts from accidental and inessential. Based on this, economic laws and models are derived.
Stages of development of economic sciencein general form can be reduced to four periods:
The main stages in the development of economic thought itself - it is mercantilism, classical political economy (physiocrats, market school), Marxist political economy and the line of economics (neoclassicists and neo-Keynesians).