Like many other concepts, the monarchy hasGreek etymology and means autocracy. Under the monarchical form of the state structure, power belongs to one person and is transferred to him by inheritance. However, there are several variants of the monarchical type of government, which differ from each other in the degree of authority of the monarch, as well as the presence or absence of additional independent authorities.
Monarchy and its types of traditional arrangement
Ancient Eastern.This is not only the very first form of the monarchy, but alsogeneral government. Here, the power of the rulers was controlled by noble estates or people's congregations, which could influence the decisions taken by the monarch.
Feudal.It is also called medieval. With this form, a policy that focuses on agricultural production is common, and society is divided into two groups: feudal lords and peasants. It had several stages of its development, the last of which is the main type of monarchy - absolute.
Theocratic.Here the head of the church receives full power,it is also possible to rule just a religious leader. The clergy in this case plays an important role in society, and the arguments of these or those actions of the chapter are reduced to their original divine origin: the signs, revelations and laws that God sent.
In addition to these three types, the monarchy is distinguished by the degree of restrictions: absolute, constitutional, parliamentary, dualistic.
Kinds of monarchy: absolute
Here there is unconditional governmentmonarch, in his hands virtually concentrated all power: judicial, legislative and executive, and in some cases religious. In the 17-18 centuries in Western Europe there was a flourishing of absolutism, which eventually ceased to be relevant.
It is interesting to justify the absolutemonarchy: the head, his predecessors and heirs are supposedly of divine origin, which on earth was accompanied by exaltation and demonstration of this with the help of magnificent palaces and etiquette. The monarchs were supported by nobles who were a step below, but at the lowest were slaves or peasants whose task was to live in poverty and obey. For this the king allowed them to live.
Types of monarchy: constitutional
With this form of government, the monarch's power is somewhatis limited not only legally, but also in fact. He shares it with the parliament, and depending on who the executive remains for, distinguish between a dualistic and parliamentary monarchy.
Types of monarchy: parliamentary
Here the government has largepowers than the monarch, he is responsible for his actions primarily in front of the parliament. The monarch, at the same time, plays an exclusively ceremonial role and does not actually have executive and legislative powers that are divided between the parliament and the government.
Types of monarchy: dualistic
Under this form of government, the monarch isa responsible authority whose government actions are limited to constitutional points. The monarch can dissolve the parliament and form the government, therefore, in fact, his power is preserved, but divided with the parliament by a formal principle: the monarch realizes the executive, and the parliament legislative.
Types of monarchies in the modern world
At present, there are states in which the monarchical order reigns. The absolute form is realized in Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Brunei and Oman.
The constitutional dualistic is represented in Morocco, Liechtenstein, the United Arab Emirates, Luxembourg, Kuwait, Monaco and Jordan.
The constitutional parliamentaryNevis, Saint Kitts, Grenadines, Saint Vincent, Jamaica, Tonga, New Zealand, Great Britain, Belgium, Cambodia, Japan, Denmark, Thailand, Norway, Canada, Sweden, Bhutan, Spain, Andorra and others.
Thus, the monarchy is sufficienta widespread phenomenon in our days, but the tendency to the predominance of its more democratic form suggests that it is more perceived as a tribute to tradition than an effective form of government in its classical meaning.