What is modernization? The term originated from the French word moderne, meaning "modern", "new". Under the modernization means the process of updating in accordance with new modern requirements. Synonyms are improvement, upgrade, upgrade.
This concept is used in connection withsocial and political processes developing in the world, changes in the world economy and the way of life of peoples of different countries, as well as to indicate technological progress and improvement of production processes.
Modernization of production is aimprovement of technological processes, development and introduction of new equipment, materials, methods and methods of production, optimization of all production processes in accordance with modern needs.
As is known from the history course, the productionmodernization is inextricably linked with the processes of reconstruction and renewal in society. With the accumulation of qualitative changes in production processes, there is an inevitable modernization of the economy, and it entails a gradual irreversible change in the way of life and the public mentality.
The concept of modernization came into use in the middleIn the last century, when social scientists analyzed the stages of the development of society from the traditional patriarchal way of life that reigned in the 18th century, with its agrarian structure and socio-political system to the modern forms of post-industrial society with all its diversity of social relations and cultural traditions. In the 1950s, a theory of modernization was created that answered the question of what modernization is in relation to the processes occurring in the world society.
According to this theory, modernization is the renewal of social relations, expressed in the transition from the feudal way of life to the modern industrial type. Its characteristic features are:
- the growth of differentiation and specialization of labor;
- strengthening bureaucratization of production;
- the emergence of socio-political institutions of a modern type;
- Increased mobility and individualism in the minds of people;
- a change in the system of cultural and moral values (the institution of the family, attitude to religion, etc.).
Three stages of modernization development are divided (withthe end of the XVIII to the beginning of the XX century, the first half of the XX century and from the 70s of the twentieth century to the beginning of this century). There are two main models. This so-called. Westernization and catching-up model.
What is modernization in the "western" (orWesternization)? This term is understood as the introduction of the Western way of life, culture, technology into the social order of developing countries (mostly through colonization). The catching-up model relies on industrialization, with the help of which it suggests "pulling up" the level of economically backward countries to the developed ones.
The theory of modernization is often criticized. The essence of the accusations, basically, boils down to the following: opponents of this concept argue that modernization can destroy the traditionally established relations without constructing new ones, that is, the so-called post-industrial society will not have clear mental orientations. But it should be understood that modernization does not involve unconditional denial and elimination of traditional values. On the contrary, in most cultures old and new traditions get along well, which stimulates the society to further development.
What is the modernization of Russian society,what is the meaning of this term in relation to our country? This issue is widely discussed not only here, but also in the world, the beginning of the discussion is based on the well-known article "Russia, forward!" D.A. Medvedev. The main directions of necessary changes in Russia are unconditionally recognized:
- the need for technical re-equipment of production, the introduction of new computer technologies, improving working conditions and the way of life of Russians;
- change in the social model of society - educational reform, development and growth of private business, reduction of the state role in the economic sphere;
- Combating corruption and building a legal society;
- Reform of the social sphere aimed at improving the standard of living of citizens.