The age of the baby from birth to three years is called early childhood. This is a very active period of development, during which the child lays the "foundation" for further formation.
The development of the psyche of a child under three years old passes very quickly. During this period, the baby masters the basic movements, learns to "communicate" with objects, the process of personal development begins.
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FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PSYCHE OF A CHILD UP TO 3 YEARS
- The development of the psyche of babies under 3 years of age may be uneven. A slow pace is "the calm before the storm." After him there is a sharp leap in mental changes. It depends on the age of the child. So, at 2.5-3 months, the child develops vision and auditory activity, and all others are in "sleep mode". From 3 months to six months, the child begins to watch with his eyes for the movements of his hands, develops a hold, learns to hold objects and play with them.But up to 3 years, the baby has already established visual, auditory, tactile and motor relationships.
- In early childhood, the development of the child’s physical and neuropsychic systems is interrelated. So, diseases affect the emotional state of the child, they can destroy the already formed forms of behavior. Conversely, if the child is in a positive atmosphere, his physical condition improves.
- At this age, children are very vulnerable both mentally and physiologically. They quickly become ill, often tired and impermanent in emotions. They easily take over the mood of adults.
- Children are not consistent in their behavioral forms. Besides the fact that they can affect the disease, children quickly forget some of the skills. For example, if you leave your child for a few days at home, returning to the kindergarten, he may forget the skill of washing hands. He will have to re-learn this. Up to 3 years, only the basics and makings of children are formed, which with age can develop into skills and habits.
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- For the full development of children is important access to information.If the child receives not enough information, he has a delay in the development of the psyche. This is explained by the fact that up to three years the child has indicative reactions. Thanks to them, the need for movement and impressions develops, and this encourages the kid to activity. And movements contribute to the development of the child’s intelligence.
- Up to three years, the child begins to master communication skills: he moves to active speech, learns to communicate with adults and peers. Laid the foundations of gaming and productive activities. The child learns the world through objects.
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- Also during this period, the child begins to actively develop the imagination. But it can play a cruel joke with the child: do not tell the child fairy tales with negative characters, do not frighten Baba Yaga — his imagination draws a frightening picture and children's fears will appear. This may be the fear of the dark, the fear of being alone in a room, and so on.
- After 2.5 years, the “I myself” period begins. The child is aware of himself as an individual, is proud of his achievements, he wants to tie his shoelaces, put on a jacket and do everything else that his parents helped him with.
- As we wrote above, the child is highly exposed to the outside, that is, its development is affected by the environment. Parents can both “freeze” the development of mental reactions, and accelerate. For example, if mom and dad show due attention to the child, are friendly to him, create a positive atmosphere, then the child’s first smile appears earlier.
Child development in early childhood depends largely on the parents. They not only provide him with comfortable conditions, but also influence his mental development.